Expansão do acesso à internet está desacelerando, diz estudo

Via Super Interessante

Relatório afirma que os altos preços e a dificuldade de acesso em algumas áreas contribui para 3,8 bilhões de pessoas estarem offline

Em junho de 2018, a internet chegou à marca de 4 bilhões de usuários. Mas isso também significa que 3,6 bilhões de pessoas ainda estão fora da revolução digital. De acordo com um relatório compartilhado com o jornal inglês The Guardian, essas pessoas desconectadas ainda estão distantes de ficar online, pois está ocorrendo uma desaceleração dramática no crescimento global do acesso à internet. Apesar de a cada ano mais pessoas terem acesso a rede, o crescimento do acesso a ela está diminuindo. Em 2007, a taxa de crescimento era de 19%. Já no ano passado ela foi de 6%.

O relatório, que se baseia em dados da ONU, será publicado no próximo mês pela Web Foundation, uma organização criada pelo inventor da world wide web, Tim Berners-Lee — que recentemente criou a plataforma Solid, para tentar “consertar” deficiências da internet. Para Dhanaraj Thakur, diretor de pesquisa da Web Foundation, o mundo subestimou a desaceleração, e a baixa taxa de crescimento é preocupante. “O problema de ter algumas pessoas online e outras não é que você aumenta as desigualdades existentes”, afirmou.

Segundo o relatório, dos 3,6 bilhões que permanecem desconectados, uma proporção alarmante é de mulheres. Em áreas urbanas pobres, o dobro de homens tem acesso a rede. Segundo os dados, a persistente diferença salarial entre homens e mulheres desempenha um papel importante na divisão digital entre os sexos, mas não é o único fator. “As mulheres são mais propensas a ficar de fora por causa das desigualdades econômicas e, em grande medida, das normas sociais”, disse Nanjira Sambuli, que lidera os esforços da fundação para promover o acesso igualitário à web. “Em algumas comunidades, toda a ideia de mulheres possuírem algo próprio, até mesmo um telefone celular, é desaprovada”.

O relatório também foca em todas as oportunidades perdidas por quem está sem acesso a rede: “À medida que nosso dia a dia se torna cada vez mais digital, essas populações offline continuarão sendo empurradas para as margens da sociedade”, afirma o documento. Ele destaca que, além das perdas econômicas, as pessoas desconectadas são impedidas de participar de debates públicos online, plataformas de educação, grupos sociais e meios simples para acessar serviços governamentais digitais, como o preenchimento de impostos e a solicitação de carteiras de identidade.

Um dos pontos levantados pelo relatório para justificar essa desaceleração é o preço da internet. “Não se trata apenas de conectividade”, disse Malcolm Johnson, vice-secretário geral da União Internacional de Telecomunicações da ONU. “Você tem que fazer valer a pena para as pessoas pagarem pela conexão. Tem que haver conteúdo que eles possam entender e que seja claramente benéfico para eles.”

Muitas das pessoas que hoje estão offline vivem em áreas em que o acesso a rede é difícil, e, por isso, muito caro — como regiões da África Subsaariana. Esses altos custos acabou desativando as prestadoras de serviços de telecomunicações, porque as comunidades não conseguem arcar com os altos preços, e as empresas não obtinham lucro nessas regiões. Johnson acredita que esforços para fornecer esse acesso através de novos de satélites ou balões de grande altitude (hoje muito usados para meteorologia) podem fazer uma “enorme diferença ”.

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